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SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY

Posted by Berman HS Friday, September 6, 2013 0 komentar



A. Definition of Sports Psychology

1 . Is Sport Psychology ?

Psychology is the science which studies human behavior in relation to the environment , ranging from simple to complex behavior . There is a conscious human behavior , but some are not realized , and the behavior displayed one can be sourced from outside or from within itself .
Psychology applied also to the field of sport and exercise psychology known as . The application to the field of sport psychology is to help the existing sports talent in a person can be developed as well as possible without any barriers and factors that exist in his personality . In other words , the general purpose of sport psychology is to help a person in order to show the optimal performance , which is better than before .

1.1 History of Sports Psychology in Indonesia

So , on the one hand a practitioner licensed psychologist who practices do not necessarily have sufficient knowledge of sport science , on the other hand , experts are not equipped with special education sports psychotherapy and counseling . As a result , until now there is still confusion about who actually has the right to provide social services in the field of sport psychology . Ideally, a consultant or a psychotherapist obtain specialized training in the field of sports; thus as a practitioner he remained on the runway professinya by following ethical guidelines that apply , and in addition it also supports knowledge keolahragaannya formal education background .
In an attempt to overcome this problem IPO as the national sport psychology association is working to make provision duties and responsibilities of its members . In addition , the IPO also working to arrange additional curriculum for psychologists certification programs for practitioners who want to provide social services in the field of sport psychology . The curriculum is a form of sport psychology specialization include : 1 ) The principle of sport psychology , 2 ) Improved performance in sports , 3 ) Applied Sports Psychology , 4 ) Psychology gymnastics .
Another problem often arises in the handling aspects of sport psychology is to determine the main client . For instance, users of services psychologists can an athlete , coach , or administrator . To whom psychologists must provide primary care in the event of such a gap between athletes and administrators , whereas psychologists employed by the board to deal with athletes , and athletes at the moment is the psychology service users . On the one hand, psychologists need to maintain the confidentiality of athletes , on the other hand, the board may be urged psychologists to describe the personality of athletes openly in the interest of the organization . Sachs (1993 ) offers a variety of possibilities , such as implementing a written agreement to provide information ; however, if an athlete knows that private organizations will be taken into consideration , it may tend to behave defensively , making an attempt to obtain information about him will fail . Therefore , a psychologist should be able to act wisely in addressing this issue , so too , should a coach who often acted as a consultant for athletes is often considered to be able to do a similar deal with the problems .

2 . Why in Sports Psychology Sports Necessary ?

Often the main physical basis without taking into account the psychological aspect . This is clearly wrong and the need for efforts to improve the concept of the sports training system . Psychological aspects of athletes who are ready to burn like torches spirit to remove all of his athletes have been obtained from the process improvement exercise . Technique and physical ability will not be so mean when mental ( mental ) are not able to mobilize to perform optimally ( http://tonangjuniarta.blogspot.com/ ) .
The purpose in studying sports psychology , among others :


Explanatory purposes , namely to explain and understand the phenomenon of human behavior and experience of exercising , it is very necessary because of the actions and deeds that seem essentially can not be separated from that attitude does not seem driven by many other psychological factors , such as personality traits individual , motivation , thinking , anxiety athletes , pengalamn feelings and also situations around .
Predictive purposes , forecasting the possibilities that can happen in sport , it needs to be better prepared for the things that will probably happen .
Control objectives , namely to control the symptoms of behavior in sport that can lead to things that do not benefit the development of the subject ( Setyobroto , 1989:14 )
Importance of Sports Psychology for Athletes

Increased stress in the game can cause athletes to react negatively , both in terms of physical and psychological , so the decreased exercise capacity . They can be tense . increased pulse rate , cold sweat , worried about the results of the game , and they feel it difficult to concentrate . This situation often leads to the athletes not to show his best game as appearance latian time . Of this state then any coach should be able to master the field of sports psychology , particularly in the control of stress ( Subandono ; 2009) .
Coaches should know what the cause of making athletes feel anxious before the match , the coach must know how to relieve anxiety athletes , coaches need to know how to increase the confident athletes , coaches need to know to motivate athletes , and so forth .

3 . How Can Sports Psychology Help Athletes To Have Mental Tough ?

Mentally tough , as well as engineering and physical , will be obtained through a well-planned exercise , organized , and systematic . In fostering psychological or mental aspect athlete , first of all we need to realize that every athlete should be considered individually , each different from the others . To help get to know each athlete 's profile , can be a psychological examination , commonly known as " psycho " , with the help of psychometrics .
Psychological profile athletes usually kepnbadian general overview , intellectual potential . and he thought that the function linked to exercise . Profile athletes generally do not change much over time . Therefore , people often assume that candidates can ditelusun talented athlete solely from psychological profiles . Such assumption is wrong , because the psychological picture of someone not guarantee success or failure in performance in sports , because so many other factors that influence it . Some psychological aspects can be improved through psychological skills training ( described later ) that planned and systematic , the implementation of which depends on the athlete 's commitment to the program .

B. Psychological aspects that play a role in Sports

The influence of psychological factors on the athlete will be seen clearly when the athlete competed . The following will describe some psychological problems most often arise in the sport , particularly in relation to matches and training times .

1 . Positive Thinking

Positive thinking is intended as a way of thinking that lead toward something positive , look at the bright side . This needs to be familiarized not only by athletes , but even more so for the coach who trained him . Familiarize yourself with positive thinking , it will be a very good influence to foster confidence , increase motivation , and cooperation with various parties . Positive thinking is the primary capital to be able to have a psychological or mental skills are formidable .
Positive thoughts and actions will be followed by positive words anyway , because the mind will take action . For example , if in playing badminton comes to negative thoughts such as , " fear of being wrong , fear out , afraid of the ball punch responsibility " and so on , then it would be a great possibility . Therefore, try and make it a habit to always think positive , avoid negative ones . Similarly, in giving instructions to the athletes . Instead of saying : " You are hard all taught ... heck , one continues ... ! Beware , do not stop before it can be ! " , It's better to say it in a positive way even if it means the same : " Come on , try again slowly , you can do it . Notice , hands , like this ... pace , here ... hit the ball , here ... let's try " .
As a coach , you show you believe that athletes have the opportunity to be able to do well . Scorn , reproach , and the scathing criticism that was not in place , it will make the athletes will react negatively and result in lower motivation followed by a decrease in performance .

2 . Targeting
Goal setting ( goal setting ) is the foundation and mental exercise . Coaches need to help each athlete to set goals , targets both in practice and in games . The target start and long-term goals , medium , to target a more specific term .
To set a goal , there are three requirements to keep in mind that it is beneficial objectives , namely :
a. Targets should be challenging .
Targets should be determined in such a way , so that athletes feel challenged to be able to achieve those goals .
b . Targets should be achievable .
Make the target was high enough , but not too high . Athletes should feel that the goals set can be achieved if he tries hard . If the target is too high , so that athletes feel impossible to achieve , it will decrease the motivation to training . Similarly , if the target is too easy to be achieved , then the athlete feels no need to train hard because he will be able to achieve those goals .
c . Targets should be increased .
Starting from a relatively low target , then make those goals higher and higher , more difficult to achieve if the athlete does not train hard . In each latihanpun accustom always the goal should be . And the target of a general nature , and then again more specifically described . And the target for a long-term competition , described the target or short-term goals , to targets for each exercise . The objectives set , should also set out when to achieve , and how well or how mengukumya what size objective . As far as possible , make the achievement chart to make it look clear direction and elevation.

3 . motivation
Motivation can be seen as a process in a person to do something in an effort to achieve a particular goal . Strong motivation indicates that the person is embedded within a strong urge to do something .
Oneself in terms of function , motivation can be distinguished between the originating and external motivation ( extrinsic ) and the motivation that comes from within oneself ( intrinsic ) . With a psychological approach expected of athletes in each appearance can show strong motivation to play as well as possible , so as to win the game .
Good motivation not basing his encouragement on extrinsic factors such as prizes or awards in the form of the material . But the motivation is good , strong , and long-time resident is an intrinsic factor that is based on a personal desire to prioritize achievement to achieve self-satisfaction rather than material things .
To develop this intrinsic motivation , the role of coaches and parents are very large . Coaches need to approach and foster self-confidence in athletes in a positive way . Teach athletes to be able to respect ourselves , therefore , the coach must show that he appreciates the work of athletes consistently.

4 . emotion
Factors emotions in athletes athletes attitude and personal feelings to yourself , trainers and other things around him . These forms are known as emotional feelings such as happy , sad , angry , anxious , fearful , and so on . The forms of these emotions present in every person . But to note here is how we control the emotions so as not to hurt yourself .
Controlling emotions in sport match is often the deciding factor of victory. The coaches have a clear idea of
​​how the emotional turmoil athlete care, not only in games but also in training and everyday life . Coaches need to know when and what are the things that can make athletes angry , happy , sad , scared , and so on . Thus the coach should also look for the data to control the emotions of the athletes care. which of course will be different between the athletes with other athletes .
Emotions can disrupt the balance of psychophysiological like shaking , abdominal pain , muscle spasms , and so on . With the disruption of the balance of physiological concentrations may be distracted , so that athletes can not perform optimally . Often an athlete experiencing heightened tension just before the game started . So great that the tension until he can not do well prefix . Moreover, if the opponent can hit and the audience was not on his side , then it is conceivable that athletes will not be able to play well . Concentration will be shattered , a strategy that had been prepared not to run , even he does not know what to do .
This is where the need to learn ways to cope with stress ( stress where - gement ) . Before coach athletes trying to overcome tension . first have to know the sources of these tensions . To find out, required good communication between coaches with athletes . The following are described separately about aspects related to emotions .

5 . Anxiety and Tension
Did you know that athletes who have high anxiety would have a low achievement ambition and vice versa if the athlete has a low anxiety will have a great ambition to excel .
Anxiety usually associated with feelings of fear of losing something , failure , guilt , fear of disappointing others , and other bad feelings . The anxieties that make athletes become tense , so when he jumped into the game then certainly his performance will not be optimal . To that end , various techniques have been widely known to treat anxiety and tension that its use depends on the kind of anxiety .
In an effort to be able to cope with stress and anxiety , especially in the face of the game , do some of the following techniques :
a. Identify and locate the major sources and the problems that cause anxiety .
b . Simulation exercises , which exercises under conditions as in real matches .
c . Try to remember , think , and feel again the moment when it reaches the best performance or the most impressive .
d . Progressive relaxation exercises , stretching Alau the relaxation of certain muscles systematically within a certain time .
e . Autogenic exercises , which is a form of relaxation exercises that systematically thinking and feeling parts of the body as warm and heavy .
f . Perform breathing exercises with breathing through the mouth and nose and breathe consciously using the diaphragm .
g . Listen to music ( to divert attention ) .
h . Talk, be in social situations ( to divert attention ) .
i . Make positive statements about yourself to do something when it's needed .
j . Others can reduce tension .
See also in this blog are the ways mental training athletes and athletes how to relieve anxiety .

5.1 Symptoms of Anxiety Compete
Symptoms of anxiety and various forms of complexity , but it can be seen from the behavior of athletes , the following symptoms of anxiety according Gunarsa ( 1996 : 39 ) :
A person experiencing anxiety ( anxiety ) tends to continuously worried about a bad situation that will befall him or another person whom he knew well . Usually , a person who has anxiety tend to be impatient , irritable , often complaining , difficulty concentrating , irritability and sleep or having difficulty sleeping . Anxiety sufferers often experience symptoms such as excessive sweating ( although the air is not hot and not after exercise ) , heart beat extra fast or too hard , cold on the hands or feet , indigestion , mouth feel dry , feel dry throat , looking pale , frequent urination exceeds the acceptable limit , and others. Anxiety sufferers are also often complain of pain in the joints , stiff muscles , feel tired , unable to relax , often or limbs with excessive intensity and frequency , for example : when sedentary mengoyangkan legs , neck stretch , frowned , and others - other . Supported by Lares (2012 : 32 ) , that " people shaking legs showed she was nervous and uneasy ( anxious ) " .
According Harsono ( 1988 : 280 ) , that " athletes who experience anxiety visible from physiological changes such as palms were wet with sweat , muscles become tense , tremor amplitude body muscles increase in size , become more frequent eye blink , breathing becomes rapid and shallow , there is a sense of nausea , abdominal stomach ache , dizziness , and so on " .
Based on the above , be concluded that the symptoms of anxiety can be grouped into competing physical symptoms and physiological symptoms . Physical symptoms and physiological symptoms is further used to reveal the anxiety level to compete .

5.2 Effect of Tension and Anxiety for Athletes
The impact of anxiety and tension before the match athletes will experience a variety of difficulties in the face of the game . Tension and anxiety can affect the physical and mental condition of the athlete in question . The following is a manifestation of tension or anxiety on the physical and mental components according Gunarsa ( 2008 : 65 ) .
a) The effect on the condition kefaalan
• Heart rate increased . That is, athletes will feel the heartbeat louder or faster .
• sweaty palms . For example , athletes badminton , tennis or table tennis , often varying the position of the hands on the racket or trying to dry by wiping hands on clothes worn .
• Dry mouth , which resulted in increased thirst .
• Disturbances in the abdomen or stomach , a really good cause injury to the superficial nature of Lampung and the like nausea .
• The muscles of the shoulders and a stiff neck . Stiffness in the neck and shoulders is a trait commonly found in sufferers of stress .
b ) The effect on the psychological aspects
• Athletes become restless
• up and down emotional turmoil . That is, athletes become so sensitive that they react quickly , or vice versa , to be blunt emotional reactions .
• The concentration inhibited so the ability to think becomes chaotic .
• The ability to read the game opposed to being blunt .
• Hesitation in decision-making .
If an athlete is in kefaalan and psychological conditions as mentioned above , of his performance will also be teganggu . Interference experienced by athletes are :
• Rhythm games become difficult to control .
• Setting accuracy is reduced time to react .
• Coordination muscles become incompatible with what is desired . For example , it is difficult to regulate the use of violence or fineness of muscle contractions .
• be a wasteful use of energy . Therefore , in a state of tension , the athlete will feel tired .
• The ability and accuracy in reading the game the opponent is reduced .
• Decision-making tends to be hasty and not in accordance with what is supposed to do .
• appearance while playing a dominated by emotional moment . Movement will be made without mind control .
From the above it can be concluded , if athletes experience anxiety at kefaalan condition and mental condition , would look like would be disturbed rhythm game that is difficult to control so that the athletes would be difficult to achieve.

5.3 . Fear Factors Compete
Worried about something , restlessness , and behavioral traits shaken an anxious person because it is caused by various factors . Factors generalized anxiety Nevid (2003 : 180-185 ) says consists of two ( 2 ) factors , namely cognitive and biological factors .
1 . Cognitive factors
- Prediction of the excessive fear
People with anxiety disorders often predict excessively about how much fear or anxiety that they would have done in those situations generating anxiety . People with a phobia of snakes , for example , expect to be shaking when dealing with a snake .
- Confidence is self -defeating or irrational
Thoughts that tend to exaggerate the risk of unfavorable events occur . For example , "What if I get an anxiety attack in front of a crowd ? " .
- Excessive sensitivity to threats
We all have an internal alarm system that is sensitive to signals threat . For example , early humans react quickly to signs of threat , such as the sound of rustling bushes that may indicate that there are predators who will attack , may be more prepared to take defensive tindangan ( faced or blurred ) .
- Sensitivity anxiety
They may be easy to panic when they experience signs ketubuhan of anxiety , such as palpitations, shortness of breath , because they regard this as sistom - sistom impending disaster , such as a heart attack .
- One attribute signals the body
The body signals can arise as a consequence of the hyperventilation that is not detected , the change in temperature , or reaction to certain medications or treatments . Or just a change in the state of the body that it's perfectly natural that usually are not felt by most people . But the individual who is easy to panic , these body signals attributable to one and regarded as something terrible , so it becomes a driving force of a panic attack .
- Self -efficacy is low
If you believe you do not have the ability to cope with stressful challenges that you face in life , you will feel more anxious when you are dealing with these challenges .
From the above it can be concluded that those who fear , feel threatened , very alert , difficulty concentrating , and so is a predictive factor of excessive anxiety due to fear , self -defeating beliefs or irrational , excessive sensitivity to threat, anxiety sensitivity , one attribute body signals , and low self-efficacy or factors is called cognitive factors .


2 . Biological factors
- Genetic factors ( heredity )
- Neurotransmitters
Irregularity or dysfunction in the serotonin and norepinephrine receptors in the brain also plays a role in anxiety disorders . This may explain why antidepressants that affect the neurotransmitter systems often have a beneficial effect in the face of several types of anxiety disorders , including panic disorder .
- Biochemical aspects in panic disorder
Strong physical component to panic disorder had was going to take some theorists to speculate that panic attacks have a biological basis , possibly involving a dysfunctional sisitem alarm in the brain .
Psychiatrist Donald Klein (1994 ) has the opinion that the damage to the respiratory system of the brain causing alarm individuals tend to panic easily show that excessive body reaction to these signals lack of air that might occur because there is little change in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood . Signal originating from the lack of air hyperventilation or other causes respiratory triggering an alarm , which then produces a sensation that the flow involves a classic panic attack : shortness of breath , choking sensation , feels dizzy , like fainting , increased heart rate or palpitations ( heart palpitations ) , tremor , hot cold sensations , and feelings of nausea .



- Biological aspects of obsessive - compulsive disorder
Another biological models recently received attention saying that obsessive-compulsive disorder that can involve keterangsangan meniggi of what is referred to as circuit anxious ( worry circuit ) , a neural network in the brain that participate in signaling danger . On obsessive - compulsive disorder ( OCD ) , the brain can constantly send the message that something is wrong and needs immediate attention , it was going to take the anxiety obsessional thoughts and compulsive repetitive behavior .
From the explanation above biological factors can be concluded that a person who agitated , shaking , a lot of sweat , dizziness , difficulty breathing , stiff neck , stomach nausea, body chills , facial flushing , irritability , and so are the traits of anxiety due to genetic factors ( heredity ) , neurotransmitters , biochemical aspects of panic disorder , and biological aspects of obsessive - compulsive disorder or it is called a biological factor .
In the book Gunarsa ( 2008 : 67 ) , specializing in the field of sports , the source of tension and anxiety experienced by athletes can come from within the athlete and can also come from outside themselves athletes or the environment . The following are the sources of tension and anxiety athletes according Gunarsa (2008 : 67 ) :
a) The source of the
• Athletes are too fixated on their technical capabilities . As a result , it is dominated by thoughts that are too burdensome , such as over-commitment that he had to play very well .
• The emergence of negative thoughts , such as fear booed by the audience if not penampialan good show . Negative thoughts are causing athletes anticipating a negative event .
• Natural mind athletes will be greatly influenced by the subjective satisfaction he felt in himself . In fact , it often does not correspond to the actual situation demands self or others such as coaches and spectators . Will appear on athletes are concerned feelings will not be able to meet outside parties , giving rise to new tensions .


Effects of strain and anxiety on performance athletes will be graded negative effect , as seen in the above chart . If high levels of anxiety will affect stretching muscles also affect the technical capabilities , performance will be affected ( worse of course ) with the result of the game / disfiguration . Furthermore , the disturbed mind and appeared many negative thoughts , such as fear of losing new concerns arise .
b ) Sources of outside
• The emergence of a variety of stimuli that confusing . These stimuli can be either the demands or expectations from the outside that cast doubt on the athlete to know about it , or difficult to be fulfilled . This situation led to confusion athlete to determine his performance , even lose confidence .
• mass effect . In any game , emotions are often mass greatly affect the appearance of athletes , especially if the game was very tight and tense .
• Rival other non - rival opponent equal. An athlete became so tense when faced with the fact that he had difficulty to play so that the situation is being squeezed . At the moment the hope of winning is being threatened , will appear many negative thoughts , such as:
 " If I fail in this game , then my rivals will be developed " .
v
 " If I lose this game , then I would be banned as a core team member of this team , and rival I would replace my position " .
v
 " If I do not succeed in this game , I will lose a good source of income " .
v
• Coaches who do not want to show ready to understand that he has tried his best. Coach is often blamed or even mocking his athletes , which can actually menguncangkan the athlete 's personality .
• Things like non - technical field conditions , adverse weather , the wind is blowing too hard, or perceived inadequate equipment .
Athletes are always experiencing anxiety before the game both sources from within and outside sources will affect the appearance of the athlete or the athlete will be difficult to concentrate on the game so that the performance will decrease as the time of exercise or achievement could say athletes will be difficult to achieve the desired achievements as coach .
          Anxiety was influenced by a variety of different kinds and severe expert opinion . Pate (1984 : 81-89 ) , adding a competing source of anxiety and anxiety factors also play :
• Experienced and inexperienced
It is of course quite possible that inexperienced athletes become nervous , threatened and even mental fall in place when they play themselves , playing away from his native place , play an important opponent , or play in a regular tournament or post- tournament .
• sensitization
Sometimes, experience or keterdedahan who repeatedly against the source of stress will tend to add to the stress of the down . This phenomenon is called sensitization
• Many questions unanswered
 Situation play any kind of cause of sportsmen asked , " can I resolve this situation ? , Can I fight him ? " Can now bring increased stress direction . No answer as a way out . Actually , this is what is called a pressure game .
• Fear of the unexpected
The followers of the sport often have extensive levels of stress can be high when they face an opponent they have never faced before or opponents that they do not recognize the track record (no prep ) .
• Demands for increased
Pressure match can arise in various forms . Development and improvement still needed for athletic success is often a source of stress .
• Parents and Society loves a winner
Parents can be a major source of stress . Parents who force their children and love them only if they successfully add to the stress experienced by young athletes .
• Pressure academic
Academic values
​​are often the main source of social stress athletes of school age . Athletes are disturbed in the exercise by the restless mind of the test you just failed , can decrease athletic performance .
• Pressure coach
Coach is the main source of praise and punishment , they can encourage sportsmen and fill with confidence or they can hinder and destroy confidence .
• Yourself
In their efforts to reach potential , sportsmen often puts pressure / demands are not realistic and menyelahkan themselves, to themselves
Shahrastani (1999 : 87 ) says the source of anxiety because of the social demands are excessive and can not be met by the individual concerned , individual achievement standards that are too high with its capabilities . Perfectionist tendencies , feelings of inferiority on the individual , the individual's own lack of preparation to deal with the situation, the mindset and the negative perception of the situation or to yourself .

6 . confidence
In sports , confidence is bound to be one of the factors determining the success of an athlete . Less problems or loss of confidence in the ability of self- will result in the athlete perform below their ability . Because the real athletes do not need to have any doubts about his ability , as long as he has been practicing seriously and have sufficient experience of playing .
The role of the coach in foster self-confidence is very large athletes . Requirement to build confidence is a positive attitude . Tell players where the strengths and weaknesses of each . String together a training program for each athlete and help them to set targets according to their abilities so that targets can be achieved if the exercise is done with great effort . Give constructive criticism in assessing athletes . Remember , even negative criticism would diminish confidence .
If the players have worked hard and played well ( albeit losing ) , show your appreciation as a coach . If the player defeats ( especially not with playing well ) , turn it on objective reality . That is, tell what he has done is right and what is wrong , and show how it should be . Meet players who have recently suffered defeat should be done as soon as possible than to see a player who has just scored a victory .

7 . communication
Communication in question is a two-way communication , especially among athletes with coaches . Problems often arise in the case of lack of good communications between coaches with athletes is a misunderstanding that led to the emergence of athletes feel unfairly treated , so it will not be open to coaches . Further result is a reduction in confidence to coach athletes .
To avoid communication barriers , coaches need to adapt the techniques of communication with the athletes while upholding individual . Openness coaches in training pogram will help good communications , provided it is done objectively and consistently . Athletes need to be given a sense of purpose and function training program for each individual .
Before the exercise program is run , it should be explained and made
​​regulations regarding discipline and training other rules , including sanctions clikenakan case of breach of the rules that have been made ​​. So , avoid to impose a sanction that has never been told before. For example , an athlete in training drinks Coca Cola , and then punished by the coach . Athletes are confused and wondering why he was punished because he had not been described before by trainers that the practice is prohibited to drink soft drinks .
Similarly, in terms of implementation . Regulations that have been made
​​, must be executed consistently. That is, if an athlete is convicted of violating certain rules , so if there are other athletes who violate the same rule he should receive the same punishment . Similarly, if the same athletes do it again in the future .
Coaches also need to be objective and positive thinking . Be objective intention is to be in accordance with the fact or facts is without menyangkutpautkan with anything else . If the coach was angry with athletes because for example the athlete came late in practice , then it's just punish athletes for being late , do not be associated with other things ( remember , the punishment must be listed in order of exercises ) .

8 . concentration
Concentration is a condition in which a person's consciousness tententu fixed on an object within a certain time . The better one's concentration , the longer he can do concentration . In sports , the concentration is very important role . With reduced or impaired concentration athletes at practice , let alone the game , then there will be a variety of problems .
In sports , the most common problems arising from the disruption of the concentration is reduced accuracy of throws , punches , kicks and shots that miss the mark . Result is reduced further if accuracy is a strategy that has been prepared to be no way , so the athletes finally confused , do not know how to play and certainly belief itself would be reduced . To avoid such circumstances, we need to do exercises to concentrate .
9 . Self-Evaluation
Self-evaluation is intended as athletes attempt to recognize circumstances that happen to himself . This is necessary so that the athlete can know her weaknesses and strengths while ago as well as today. Armed with the knowledge of his situation is that the player can set the target and the target practice game and how to measure it . Other usability is to evaluate the things he had done , making it possible to repeat the best performance and prevent poor performance .
Therefore , the coach should instruct the athletes to have a diary about the practices and games . Ask the players to write down the advantages and disadvantages of self , both in terms of physical , technical and mental . Correct the later as a coach if you think there are things that do not fit or are no less .
Make it a habit for athletes to fill out the book on a regular basis . Encourage athletes to write in his book that essentially matters as follows :
- Target long-term , medium- , and short-term training and competition .
- Something to do and think about before practice or game .
- A movement or an impressive appearance .
- Notes on the weaknesses and strengths of the opponent to be faced and the strategies to deal with it .
- Results and game.
- It is disturbing emotion or make you look so bad .
- Award earned on a success .
Make sure that the book is filled regularly by every athlete . But keep in mind that the coach should not be too pushy to read the diary athletes . Let it become part of their personal and confidential . That need to be monitored by coaches is that athletes have the material for himself to perform the evaluation .

10 Burnout and Boredom
Due to prolonged and exhausting exercise athletes will feel tired and bored , which would certainly cause a reaction athletes and will negatively affect achievement perpengaruh athletes . This is where it takes a creative coach , looking at how that athletes do not feel tired and bored during the long exercise . Hackney , A.C. , Perlamen , S.N. & Nowacki , J , M. (1990 ) , or signs of saturation reactions :
a) Loss of interest in playing .
b ) Reduced awareness .
c ) sleep disorders .
Savis study (1994 ) concluded that the factor was not the same effect on all performance athletes . Each athlete has their own pattern in terms of the relationship between sleep and performance. However , for athletes who will participate in the game or competition , to take into account factors that may regulate sleep ( the change of seasons , the body condition of fitness , the journey beyond the borders of hours , and anxiety ) which in turn may interfere with achievement .
d ) physical and mental saturation .
e ) Headache .
f ) Change in emotional atmosphere .
g ) Dependence on certain objects or substances .
h ) Changes in values
​​and belief systems .
i ) exclusion of emotion .
j ) Increased anxiety .
To cope with the conditions or circumstances experienced by sick and tired of athletes , takes specific measures , among others :
a) Reduce the monotonous exercise .
b ) Stop the exercise for a while ( passive rest ) .
c ) Change the practice environment .
d ) Changing patterns of exercise has been carried out every day constantly be finding new ones ( eg : if physical exercise can be replaced with a swim together , play volleyball , etc. )
e) variation in everyday life .
f ) To develop psychological skills such as relaxation , imagery , goal setting and self-talk or positive self- suggestion .
g ) Changing styles of training ( eg ; were used to authoritarian can be replaced with democracy ) .
h ) Etc.

11 . overtraining
In research Hollander , Mayers ( 1995 ) concluded that excessive exercise ( overtrening ) negative impact on athletes and the coaches : bored , tired , decreased motivation and excitement , stress , performance targets are not achieved , and an increase in the likelihood of accidents . Excessive exercise can be overcome by formulating goals , reward systems , and setting appropriate schedule .

12 . Getting to know athletes by the personality
In everyday life we often judge people and sometimes judgment by far we've fitted but sometimes wrong . Affecting many personalities ; example of heredity , dietary factors , family factors , environmental factors , and others. In order for a relationship , communication , and our friendship with others well and smoothly then we need to know the character and personality of the person. So also a trainer , a good coach should know each individual athlete 's personality , because every human being is not the same personality and the same way every human face . There is love in praise athletes there who do not like to be praised , no athlete more excited if in mad by the coach , there is defiant when reprimanded the coach , etc. . If we already know the personality of the athlete then we certainly will know how to deal with it will know whether he is lying or not , how to practice , and so on .

13 . Recognize athletes through body language and body type and face shape athletes

C. preparation Match
After a well trained athlete physically , techniques , strategies , and mentally with the right exercise program , the exercise is to test the results with lterjun into the game . Would be expected that every player will be able to display all abilities acquired and exercise . But often players perform in the bottom of the form , meaning that it can not display all the capabilities they have at the time of the match .
To overcome this, as above , is necessary to create a situation that supports the achievement of optimum performance and do perwapan mentally to face a match so that the athlete can display the entire capacity , peak performance and result .
There are four important stages in the preparation for the match , which
( 1 ) Before the day of the match ( latiahan moments away earlier , general preparation and specific preparation , can be 1 year , ½ year , 2 months , etc. )
( 2 ) On the day of the match ( minutes of the game , was in lokasih match )
( 3 ) When the game ( already on the field and play )
( 4 ) After the match ( after completion of all matches and repopulating the place of exercise , respectively )

1 . Prior to Match Day
a. Collect data on the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent . If it makes it possible for , play the game footage . Then place a strategy to deal with it . For doubles players , discuss strategies with their partner .
b . Monitor the progress of athletes , both physically and mentally with regard to how the level of concentration , how the rhythm , timing , power , and smooth running skills and attitudes towards exercise in general .
c . Monitor the athlete's level of anxiety by looking at her expression whether sunny or gloomy : his eyes are tired or fresh and alert . Also notice his mood , how the quality of sleep and eat , whether he suffered psychosomatic factors such as abdominal pain , muscle pain , shortness of breath , fever , cough , cold sweat , and so on .
d . At no time exercise , make sure that the athletes are not " live and think " about 24 hours , day matches . Give a fun activity for him who can give happy atmosphere , so that he could take his mind for a moment of the game .
e . One day before the game , usually fairly mild exercise alone and do not need to be on the field too long . On the night before the match , go to sleep at the right time , do not need to sleep too quickly . Before bed , do relaxation exercises and visualization . If the match is done tomorrow morning or during the day , prepare the tools perperlengkapan matches , including a change of clothes and gear up tonight so that tomorrow is not in a hurry . Make sure all in good condition .

2 . On Match Day
a. Waking up at the right time , in the evening should be sleeping enough and not overdone . Then do the routine activities of daily habits , such as prayer , praying , stretching , breakfast ( note when to eat and what to eat ) , relaxation and visualization exercises , check back equipment including game reserves. Start today with a happy , upbeat , and positive thinking .
b . Went to the game at the right time . Calculate the distance to the game , how to achieve it , traffic jams, and so on . No need to go too fast , but do not be late , so no time to rest , adjustment and heating .
c . In place of the game where the coach needs to recognize athletes who are near their friends and which ones prefer to be alone . Make sure in which field athletes who will compete , do not forget to report to the committee . For the first game , make sure the athletes have memorized where the location of the locker room , WC , a wellness area , a doping test , a place to change the strings , and so on .
d . While warming up , the athlete should increase the level of ` spirit ' DLAN keep thinking positive . Coaches can remind strategies to be implemented at a glance . Perform the full strokes with concentration can then proceed dengan'visualisasi clan relaxation .

3 . currently Playing
When play got , this is no time to think about hitting techniques or how to move . It's all been trained in the practice and has lived in the visualization . Now it's time to stay repeating events are visualized and do so in accordance with the current situation . Now is the time to do a full concentration only on the ball and the game .
Encourage athletes to :
a. Monitor clan adjust the level of anxiety , do relaxation .
b . Concentrate solely on the game that is being undertaken . The new error or have occurred , the clan that might occur should not ignored .
c . Think positive and optimistic , do not let negative thoughts .
d . Not too much to analyze .
e . Play with the rhythm of their own , do not be carried away opponents rhythm .
f . Execute a strategy prepared . Do not be modified if the strategy goes . Do a brief evaluation , if the strategy does not work , do the adjustment with an alternative strategy has been prepared .
g . Avoid negative things like , blame yourself excessively , talking to yourself over , negative thinking , doubting the ability of the clan to give up before the game finished .
h . If you play well , do not ask why any change clan ; let it run that way. Do not loosen if it is leading ( the lead ) , the clan does not need pity if the opponent gets zero .

4 . After Match Day
a. Have the athlete record things posisitf or perceived negative effect on his performance in the match . Not only are techniques , tactics , strategies clan , but also the mental nature , and even other small things . Record the results of the evaluation of the athlete in the book .
b . Evaluation of appearance in the match . Is reaching the target ?
c . Decide whether the necessary adjustments to the exercise program .
d . Focus on the positive aspects of the appearance in the match .

D. As a coach coach Mental Athlete

Coaches in the sport may have a function as a maker or exercise program implementers , as a motivator , counselor , evaluator , and is responsible for all matters relating to the coaching . As a human being , coaches as well as athletes , have unique personalities that differ from one another . Every coach has their advantages and disadvantages , therefore there is no ideal or pure coach sempura .
In filling the role as a coach , one must involve himself totally with athlete care. That is, a coach is not just merely take care of the problem or things related to the sport , but the coach also must be able to act as a friend , teacher . parents , counselors , psychologists even for athletes care. Thus it can be expected that athletes who want to develop as an achievement , will have the full confidence of his coach .
Deep engagement among coaches with athletes should be guided by caring for their empathy towards athletes and coaches tersebut.Empati is the ability to be able to appreciate the feelings of coaches or athletes circumstances , which means the coach can understand athletes in total without losing his own identity pnbadinya . To understand the state of the athlete can be obtained by knowing or know the important things that exist on the athlete in question . Saia rudimentary knowledge is not enough for the coach to know the psychological state of athletes . Basic and want to understand the attitude of the state of psychology coach athletes are understanding that each person has unique characteristics that require special handling as in relationships with development potential.
Personality of a coach can also shape the personality athlete who became her care . The most important thing that should be inculcated to the athlete's coach is that the coach believes in the athlete that what is planned and carried out by the trainer is for the good and progress of the athletes themselves . To be able to get the confidence of the athlete , the coach is not enough just to ask , but must prove it through words , deeds , and sincerity . Once athletes coaches believe the program made
​​any heavy coaches will be run by the athlete in earnest .

Sources Of Books

Bompa , Tudor O , 1983 . Theory and Methodology of Traning , trans. Sarwono.Surabaya : Airlangga University .
Gunarsa , Singgih D. , 2002. Sports Psychology Honours . Jakarta : PT BPK Gunung Mulia .
Gunarsa , Singgih D. , Satiadarma , Myrna Hardjolukito , 1996 . Sport Psychology : Theory and Practice . Jakarta : PT BPK Gunung Mulia .
Harsono , 1988 . Coaching and Psychological Aspects In Coaching . Jakarta : Ministry of Education and Culture .
Nevid , Jeffrey S. , Spencer A. Rathus , Beverly Greene , 2003. Abnormal Psychology . Volume 1 . New York: McGraw
Shahrastani , 1999. Sports Psychology . Padang : State University of Padang .


Sources from the Internet

Sources : http://www.bulutangkis.com/mod.php?mod=userpage&menu=403&page_id=7
- See more at : http://simbolonbermanhot.blogspot.com/2013/08/psikologi-olahraga.html # sthash.aRPuKWAb.dpuf


TERIMA KASIH ATAS KUNJUNGAN SAUDARA
Judul:

SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY


Ditulis oleh Berman HS
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